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Influence of gut microbiota on human health and disease.
Source: Pettersson, S., 2015 “Emerging Technologies : Microbiome”, National Cancer Centre Singapore.

Round, J., & Mazmanian, S. (2009). The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol, 9(5), 313-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri2515

The gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in providing area of interaction between the host immune system and microorganisms; in both a symbiotic and pathogenic fashion. Disturbances of homeostatic microbiota results in dysregulation of adaptive pathology and hence resulting in many GIT disorders. It was found that this disruption can cause inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Studies have found that a new population of inflammatory T cells can produce proinflammatory interleukins. The enhancement of this mechanism has been due to the cause metabolic disruption in gut microbiota. The overproduction of these T cells increase inflammation in the GIT which is mediated by microbiota.

Collins, S., & Bercik, P. (2009). The Relationship Between Intestinal Microbiota and the Central Nervous System in Normal Gastrointestinal Function and Disease. Gastroenterology, 136(6), 2003-2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.01.075

This paper discusses the relationship between the gut microbiota with gastrointestinal function and central nervous system. It has been found that we are able to unintentionally control our gut microbiota by CNS innervation. Disruption to this alters GIT function and microbiome leads to diseases and there has been suggestions where it could possibly cause brain abnormalities as well. CNS control of the GIT is significant in possibly altering gut microbiota and our neuronal control has been another contributing factor. More scientists are looking to the psychological aspects that are affected in disease state patients.

Bisgaard, H., Li, N., Bonnelykke, K., Chawes, B., Skov, T., & Paludan-Müller, G. et al. (2011). Reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota during infancy is associated with increased risk of allergic disease at school age. Journal Of Allergy And Clinical Immunology, 128(3), 646-652.e5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2011.04.060

Since the human microbiome automatically adjusts and adapt at times of drastic change such as new born babies or through puberty; this study explores the neonatal fecal flora and see how much microbiota changes within six years. Within these six years the body seems to have developed allergic sensitisation such as asthma which was responsible by IgE. IgE prevalence within early stages of life have been seen to trigger gut microbiota to prevent or induce allergic reactions to unknown substances within the body. This gives us an insight on the microbiota diversity within the early stages of life and how it can continue to adapt to our lifestyle changes. 

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